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Re: This day in History . . . . . 20 January

Post by jthspace » Sat Jan 20, 2018 3:23 pm

1265 First English Parliament summoned other than by royal command (in this instance by Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester) mets in Westminster Hall

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Simon de Montfort's Parliament was an English parliament held from 20 January 1265 until mid-March the same year, instigated by Simon de Montfort, a baronial rebel leader.

Simon de Montfort had seized power in England following his victory over Henry III at the Battle of Lewes during the Second Barons' War, but his grip on the country was under threat. In an attempt to gather more support he summoned representatives from not only the barons and the knights of the shires, as had occurred in previous parliaments, but also burgesses from the major towns. The resulting parliament in London discussed radical reforms and temporarily stabilised Montfort's political situation. Montfort was killed at the Battle of Evesham later that year, but the idea of inviting both knights and burgesses to parliaments became more popular under the reign of Henry's son Edward I. By the 14th century this had become the norm, with the gathering becoming known as the House of Commons. This parliament is sometimes referred to as the first English parliament and Montfort himself is often termed the founder of the Commons.

1841 China cedes Hong Kong to the British during the 1st Opium War

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British Hong Kong was the period during which Hong Kong was under British Crown rule from 1841 to 1997 (excluding the Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945). It was established as a Crown colony and later designated a British Dependent Territory in 1981. Hong Kong Island was ceded to the United Kingdom by the Qing dynasty of China after the First Opium War (1839–42). The Kowloon Peninsula was added to the colony after the Second Opium War (1856–60). Finally, in 1898, the New Territories were added under a 99-year lease. Although Hong Kong Island and Kowloon were ceded to Britain in perpetuity, the New Territories – which comprised over 90 per cent of Hong Kong's land – had such a vital role in the economy that the British government agreed to transfer sovereignty of the entirety of Hong Kong to China upon the expiration of the lease in 1997. The transfer has been credited by some as marking the end of the British Empire.

1921 Republic of Turkey declared out of remnants of Ottoman Empire

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The Constitution of 1921 (Ottoman Turkish: Teşkilât-ı Esasiye Kanunu; Turkish: 1921 Türk Anayasası) was the fundamental law of Turkey for a brief period from 1921 to 1924. The first constitution of the modern Turkish state, it was ratified by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in January 1921. It was a simple document consisting of only 23 short articles. In October 1923 the constitution was amended to declare Turkey to be a republic.[1] In April the following year the constitution was replaced by an entirely new document, the Constitution of 1924.

1942 Nazi officials hold notorious Wannsee conference in Berlin to organise the "final solution", the extermination of Europe's Jews

On January 20, 1942, 15 high-ranking Nazi Party and German government officials gathered at a villa in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee to discuss and coordinate the implementation of what they called the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question."

Key Facts

-The mass murder of the Jews by Nazi Germany and its collaborators required the coordination and cooperation of governmental agencies throughout Axis-controlled Europe.

-The Wannsee Conference was a high-level meeting of German officials to discuss and implement the so-called “Final Solution of the Jewish Question” (mass killing).

-The SS envisioned that some 11 million Jews, some of them not living on German-controlled territory, would be eradicated as part of the Nazi program.

The Conference

Representing the SS at the meeting were: SS General Reinhard Heydrich, the chief of the Reich Security Main Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt-RSHA) and one of Reichsführer-SS (SS chief) Heinrich Himmler's top deputies; SS Major General Heinrich Müller, chief of RSHA Department IV (Gestapo); SS Lieutenant Colonel Adolf Eichmann, chief of the RSHA Department IV B 4 (Jewish Affairs); SS Colonel Eberhard Schöngarth, commander of the RSHA field office for the Government General in Krakow, Poland; SS Major Rudolf Lange, commander of RSHA Einsatzkommando 2, deployed in Latvia in the autumn of 1941; and SS Major General Otto Hofmann, the chief of SS Race and Settlement Main Office.

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Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the SD (Security Service) and Nazi governor of Bohemia and Moravia. Place uncertain, 1942.

Representing the agencies of the State were: State Secretary Roland Freisler (Ministry of Justice); Ministerial Director Wilhelm Kritzinger (Reich Cabinet); State Secretary Alfred Meyer (Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories-German-occupied USSR); Ministerial Director Georg Leibrandt (Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories); Undersecretary of State Martin Luther (Foreign Office); State Secretary Wilhelm Stuckart (Ministry of the Interior); State Secretary Erich Naumann (Office of Plenipotentiary for the Four-Year Plan); State Secretary Josef Bühler (Office of the Government of the Governor General-German-occupied Poland); and Ministerial Director Gerhard Klopfer (Nazi Party Chancellery).

The "Final Solution" was the code name for the systematic, deliberate, physical annihilation of the European Jews. At some still undetermined time in 1941, Hitler authorized this European-wide scheme for mass murder. Heydrich convened the Wannsee Conference (1) to inform and secure support from government ministries and other interested agencies relevant to the implementation of the “Final Solution,” and (2) to disclose to the participants that Hitler himself had tasked Heydrich and the RSHA with coordinating the operation. The men at the table did not deliberate whether such a plan should be undertaken, but instead discussed the implementation of a policy decision that had already been made at the highest level of the Nazi regime.

At the time of the Wannsee Conference, most participants were already aware that the National Socialist regime had engaged in mass murder of Jews and other civilians in the German-occupied areas of the Soviet Union and in Serbia. Some had learned of the actions of the Einsatzgruppen and other police and military units, which were already slaughtering tens of thousands of Jews in the German-occupied Soviet Union. Others were aware that units of the German Army and the SS and police were killing Jews in Serbia. None of the officials present at the meeting objected to the Final Solution policy that Heydrich announced.

Not present at the meeting were representatives of the German Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) and the Reich Railroads (Reichsbahn) in the German Ministry of Transportation. The SS and police had already negotiated agreements with the German Army High Command on the murder of civilians, including Soviet Jews, in the spring of 1941, prior to the invasion of the Soviet Union. In late September 1941, Hitler had authorized the Reich Railroads to transport German, Austrian, and Czech Jews to locations in German-occupied Poland and the German-occupied Soviet Union, where German authorities would kill the overwhelming majority of them.

Heydrich indicated that approximately 11,000,000 Jews in Europe would fall under the provisions of the "Final Solution." In this figure, he included not only Jews residing in Axis-controlled Europe, but also the Jewish populations of the United Kingdom, and the neutral nations (Switzerland, Ireland, Sweden, Spain, Portugal, and European Turkey). For Jews residing in the Greater German Reich and holding the status of subjects of the German Reich, the Nuremberg Laws would serve as a basis for determining who was a Jew.

Heydrich announced that “during the course of the Final Solution, the Jews will be deployed under appropriate supervision at a suitable form of labor deployment in the East. In large labor columns, separated by gender, able-bodied Jews will be brought to those regions to build roads, whereby a large number will doubtlessly be lost through natural reduction. Any final remnant that survives will doubtless consist of the elements most capable of resistance. They must be dealt with appropriately, since, representing the fruit of natural selection, they are to be regarded as the core of a new Jewish revival.”

The participants discussed a number of other issues raised by the new policy, including the establishment of the Theresienstadt camp-ghetto as a destination for elderly Jews as well Jews who were disabled or decorated in World War I, the deferment until after the war of “Final Solution” measures against Jews married to non-Jews or persons of mixed descent as defined by the Nuremberg laws, prospects for inducing Germany's Axis partners to give up their Jewish populations, and preparatory measures for the “evacuations.”

Despite the euphemisms which appeared in the protocols of the meeting, the aim of the Wannsee Conference was clear to its participants: to further the coordination of a policy aimed at the physical annihilation of the European Jews.



1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt sworn-in for an unprecedented (and never to be repeated) 4th term as US President

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1981 Ronald Reagan inaugurated as the 40th President of the United States of America

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2009 Barack Obama, inaugurated as the 44th President of the United States of America, becomes the United States' first African-American president

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Oh, not forgetting the latest one . . . 2017 Donald Trump inaugurated as the 45th President of the United States of America

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Re: This day in History . . . . . 23 January

Post by jthspace » Tue Jan 23, 2018 10:54 am

971 War elephant corps of the Southern Han defeated at Shao by crossbow fire from Song Dynasty troops; Southern Han state forced to submit to the Song Dynasty. 1st regular war elephant corps in Chinese army

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Enjoy them in a natural environment
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January 23 – In China, the war elephant corps of the Southern Han are soundly defeated at Shao by crossbow fire from Song dynasty troops. The Southern Han state is forced to submit to the Song dynasty, ending not only Southern Han rule, but also the first regular war elephant corps employed in a Chinese army that had gained the Southern Han victories throughout the 10th century.

1368 In a coronation ceremony, Zhu Yuanzhang ascends to the throne of China as the Hongwu Emperor, initiating Ming Dynasty rule over China that would last for three centuries.

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Zhu Yuanzhang, also known as Emperor Hongwu (ruled 1368–1398), was the founder of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644). He was born a peasant, becamea monk,then a rebel leader, and finally became the first emperor of a new dynasty.

Peasant
Zhu Yuanzhang grew up as a peasant. He was born in 1328. It is said that he was the youngest of seven or eight brothers. Due to poverty, several of his brothers were given away.

During the final 30 years of the Yuan era (1279–1368), there were a lot of famines and natural disasters.

In 1344, when he was 16, the Yellow River flooded his home. Then his family died of disease.

Monk
He took shelter in a Buddhist monastery that also ran out of money, and he was forced to leave and beg for food. But he returned to the monastery when he was 24, and he learned to read and write there. Then the monastery where he took refuge was destroyed by Yuan troops.

Rebel Leader
Zhu Yuanzhang first joined a local rebel group. Then they joined a larger Red Turban army that had Zoroastrian and Buddhist beliefs. Zoroastrianism was a Western religion that had spread through Central Asia before Islam spread.

He then became the leader of the large Red Turban rebel army before he was 30.

In 1356, Zhu’s army conquered Nanjing. This was an important city that was strategically located so that he could control part of the Yangtze River and the region south of it. He made Nanjing his capital.

Over the next 10 years, he defeated all the other powerful rival armies. In 1368, he attacked the Yuan empire capital of Dadu (Beijing) and gained control of it. The Yuan court fled northwards, but the Yunnan area remained under Yuan rule until 1380.

Emperor Hongwu (Ruled 1368–98)
During his 30-year reign, Zhu Yuanzhang instituted major policy initiatives. Some of his policies became permanent Ming policies, and he reversed some of his own policies when he was old.

Foreign Policy
To suppress the merchants and prevent pirate attacks, Zhu decreed a maritime embargo policy during his reign.

Policies Towards Eunuchs
He wanted to make sure that eunuchs had no ruling power because eunuchs had become involved in internal politics and were responsible for a lot of the court’s decadence.

To limit their power and ensure the centralization of authority, eunuchs were not allowed to engage in official affairs and had to be illiterate.

New Government Structure
Emperor Hongwu staffed his bureaucracy with officials who passed the Neo-Confucian imperial examinations. These officials were dependent on the court for their position so that they might prove to be more loyal. They were generally very intelligent and well educated.

Secret Policy (Personal Policy)
After Zhu Yuanzhang emerged as the rebel general, he became more and more suspicious. He set up a private guard military institution, which was known as the Embroidered Uniform Guard. It served as Zhu’s secret police to help him spy on his subjects.

Issued Paper Currency
Emperor Hongwu also issued paper currency. But he was ill grounded in economy and it is said that he handed out too much paper money during his lifetime causing inflation.

Pro-Peasant Policy
Hongwu grew up as a peasant, and maybe he championed their plight since he knew firsthand that they were often reduced to slavery and starvation by the rich and the officials.

He instituted public work projects and he tried to distribute land to the peasants. During the middle part of his reign, Hongwu made an edict that those who brought fallow land under cultivation could keep it as their property without being taxed.

By the end of his reign, cultivated land had increased substantially. The peasants prospered because they sold their produce to the growing cities. During his reign, the population increased quickly.

Anti-Merchant Policy
Emperor Hongwu grew up as a peasant and he knew only too well that peasants were often reduced to slavery and exploitation by the rich and officials.

He tried to weaken the merchant class and to force them to pay high taxes, and he even relocated a number of them. In 1371, Emperor Hongwu issued a sea ban policy.

The End of His Reign
It is said that in 1380, a thunderbolt hit his palace, and he stopped the killings and massacres for some time because he was afraid that Heaven would punish him.

He reigned for 30 years and died when he was 70. When he died, his physicians and concubines were put to death on his instructions.

1556 Shaanxi Earthquake - deadliest ever recorded kills 830,000 in Shensi Province, China

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So, I am not sure HOW Youtube got a video of the destruction - Fake News?

The earthquake - estimated at magnitude 8 - struck Shaanxi and neighbouring Shanxi province to the east early on Jan. 23, 1556, killing or injuring an estimated 830,000 people. This massive death toll is thought to have reduced the population of the two provinces by about 60 percent.

1950 Israeli Knesset resolves Jerusalem is capital of Israel

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By a vote of 60-2 with members of Mapam and Herut abstaining, the Knesset adopts a proclamation declaring Jerusalem the capital of the State of Israel. In December 1949, the cabinet had drafted the resolution following a compromise between those who wanted an official legislative act declaring the city as capital of the country and those who felt that such an action was unnecessary.

During the vote, an amendment proposed by Herut which would have made the resolution applicable to all of Jerusalem, including the Old City which at the time was occupied by Transjordan, was defeated. The two members who voted against the proposal were from the Communist party which supported an International trusteeship for the city as had been proposed by the United Nations.

The proclamation declared, “Whereas with establishment of the state of Israel, Jerusalem once more becomes the capital; Whereas practical difficulties which caused the Knesset and government institutions to be temporarily housed elsewhere have now for the most part been removed and the government is carrying out the transfer of its institutions to Jerusalem; The Knesset expresses the wish that construction of the seat of the government and Knesset in Jerusalem proceed speedily on the site allotted by the government for this purpose.”

1973 US President Richard Nixon announces an accord has been reached to end Vietnam War

On Jan. 23, 1973, President Richard Nixon announced an accord had been reached to end the Vietnam War. In a televised speech, Nixon said the accord would “end the war and bring peace with honor.”

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The Paris Peace Accords, negotiated by Nixon’s national security adviser, Henry Kissinger, and North Vietnam’s Le Duc Tho, called for a ceasefire to begin on Jan. 27 between North and South Vietnamese troops that would allow Americans troops to begin a 60-day withdrawal. Additionally, North Vietnam agreed to release all American prisoners of war.

The New York Times reported, “Obviously pleased by the long-awaited development, ending the longest war in American history, Mr. Nixon said the Hanoi-Washington agreement ‘meets the goals’ and has the ‘full support’ of President Nguyen Van Thieu of South Vietnam.”

The Paris Peace Accords ended America’s direct involvement in the Vietnam War. But despite the ceasefire and provisions calling for “genuinely free and democratic general elections” in South Vietnam and the reunification of Vietnam “through peaceful means,” it did nothing to end the war between North and South Vietnam. Mr. Kissinger and Tho were awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize, but Tho refused to accept because a true peace had not been reached.

North and South resumed fighting later in the year, and in January 1974, President Thieu declared the accords no longer in effect. North Vietnam forces advanced south, and by the spring of 1975 were nearing the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon. President Thieu asked Nixon’s successor for more financing, but was turned down. On April 21, he resigned and gave a speech accusing the United States of betraying South Vietnam and Kissinger for signing a treaty that brought about his country’s defeat. North Vietnamese troops overran Saigon on April 30, forcing South Vietnam to surrender and bring about an end to the war.

1978 Sweden becomes the first nation in the world to ban aerosol sprays, believed to be damaging to earth's ozone layer.

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January 23, 1978. On this date, Sweden announced it would ban aerosol sprays containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as the propelling agent. It was the first country in the world to do so. Scientific evidence had mounted that CFCs were damaging to Earth’s ozone layer. Sweden was the first to act on this evidence, which came before before the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. Virtually every country on Earth ultimately followed Sweden in banning CFCs, via an international treaty known as the Montreal Protocol. According to a July 2014 ozone update in Physics Today, in the 30 years since the ozone hole was discovered, scientists’ understanding of the polar atmosphere has become much more complete.
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Re: This day in History . . . . . 24 January

Post by jthspace » Thu Jan 25, 2018 8:47 pm

I was born, but now something more interesting . . .
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Boy Scouts movement begins

On January 24, 1908, the Boy Scouts movement begins in England with the publication of the first installment of Robert Baden-Powell’s Scouting for Boys. The name Baden-Powell was already well known to many English boys, and thousands of them eagerly bought up the handbook. By the end of April, the serialization of Scouting for Boys was completed, and scores of impromptu Boy Scout troops had sprung up across Britain.

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In 1900, Baden-Powell became a national hero in Britain for his 217-day defense of Mafeking in the South African War. Soon after, Aids to Scouting, a military field manual he had written for British soldiers in 1899, caught on with a younger audience. Boys loved the lessons on tracking and observation and organized elaborate games using the book. Hearing this, Baden-Powell decided to write a nonmilitary field manual for adolescents that would also emphasize the importance of morality and good deeds.

First, however, he decided to try out some of his ideas on an actual group of boys. On July 25, 1907, he took a diverse group of 21 adolescents to Brownsea Island in Dorsetshire where they set up camp for a fortnight. With the aid of other instructors, he taught the boys about camping, observation, deduction, woodcraft, boating, lifesaving, patriotism, and chivalry. Many of these lessons were learned through inventive games that were very popular with the boys. The first Boy Scouts meeting was a great success.

With the success of Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell set up a central Boy Scouts office, which registered new Scouts and designed a uniform. By the end of 1908, there were 60,000 Boy Scouts, and troops began springing up in British Commonwealth countries across the globe. In September 1909, the first national Boy Scout meeting was held at the Crystal Palace in London. Ten thousand Scouts showed up, including a group of uniformed girls who called themselves the Girl Scouts. In 1910, Baden-Powell organized the Girl Guides as a separate organization.

The American version of the Boy Scouts has it origins in an event that occurred in London in 1909. Chicago publisher William Boyce was lost in the fog when a Boy Scout came to his aid. After guiding Boyce to his destination, the boy refused a tip, explaining that as a Boy Scout he would not accept payment for doing a good deed. This anonymous gesture inspired Boyce to organize several regional U.S. youth organizations, specifically the Woodcraft Indians and the Sons of Daniel Boone, into the Boy Scouts of America. Incorporated on February 8, 1910, the movement soon spread throughout the country. In 1912, Juliette Gordon Low founded the Girl Scouts of America in Savannah, Georgia.

In 1916, Baden-Powell organized the Wolf Cubs, which caught on as the Cub Scouts in the United States, for boys under the age of 11. Four years later, the first international Boy Scout Jamboree was held in London, and Baden-Powell was acclaimed Chief Scout of the world. He died in 1941.


1935
First canned beer goes on sale


Canned beer makes its debut on this day in 1935. In partnership with the American Can Company, the Gottfried Krueger Brewing Company delivered 2,000 cans of Krueger’s Finest Beer and Krueger’s Cream Ale to faithful Krueger drinkers in Richmond, Virginia. Ninety-one percent of the drinkers approved of the canned beer, driving Krueger to give the green light to further production.

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By the late 19th century, cans were instrumental in the mass distribution of foodstuffs, but it wasn’t until 1909 that the American Can Company made its first attempt to can beer. This was unsuccessful, and the American Can Company would have to wait for the end of Prohibition in the United States before it tried again. Finally in 1933, after two years of research, American Can developed a can that was pressurized and had a special coating to prevent the fizzy beer from chemically reacting with the tin.

The concept of canned beer proved to be a hard sell, but Krueger’s overcame its initial reservations and became the first brewer to sell canned beer in the United States. The response was overwhelming. Within three months, over 80 percent of distributors were handling Krueger’s canned beer, and Krueger’s was eating into the market share of the “big three” national brewers–Anheuser-Busch, Pabst and Schlitz. Competitors soon followed suit, and by the end of 1935, over 200 million cans had been produced and sold.

The purchase of cans, unlike bottles, did not require the consumer to pay a deposit. Cans were also easier to stack, more durable and took less time to chill. As a result, their popularity continued to grow throughout the 1930s, and then exploded during World War II, when U.S. brewers shipped millions of cans of beer to soldiers overseas. After the war, national brewing companies began to take advantage of the mass distribution that cans made possible, and were able to consolidate their power over the once-dominant local breweries, which could not control costs and operations as efficiently as their national counterparts.

Today, canned beer accounts for approximately half of the $20 billion U.S. beer industry. Not all of this comes from the big national brewers: Recently, there has been renewed interest in canning from microbrewers and high-end beer-sellers, who are realizing that cans guarantee purity and taste by preventing light damage and oxidation.
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Re: This day in History . . . . . 25 January

Post by jthspace » Thu Jan 25, 2018 9:01 pm

1554 Founding of the city of São Paulo in Brazil

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São Paulo, estado (state) of southeastern Brazil, bordering on the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast and bounded by the states of Minas Gerais (northeast), Rio de Janeiro (east), Paraná (southwest), and Mato Grosso do Sul (west). São Paulo constitutes the heart of the Southeast, Brazil’s most developed and populous region. The state itself is the most economically productive and populous in the country, accounting for more than one-fifth of the national population. It produces more than half of the country’s manufactures and much of its leading crop—coffee. The overwhelming majority of its population is urban and suburban. The state capital, São Paulo, is the largest city in Brazil (having overtaken Rio de Janeiro in the 1950s) and one of the largest urban centres in the world. Area 95,834 square miles (248,209 square km). Pop. (2010) 41,262,199.

São Paulo has a coastline 370 miles (600 km) long. The narrow coastal zone is broken by lagoons, tidal channels, and mountain spurs. It is bordered by the slopes of the Serra do Mar, on the edge of an extensive plateau with wide, grassy plains, about 1,500 to 3,000 feet (460 to 920 metres) above sea level. Isolated ranges of low elevation break the surface in places, but, in general, the undulating tableland slopes toward the Paraná River, the state’s western boundary.

The Paraná and its tributaries—the Paranapanema, Tieté (which traverses the whole state), Pardo, Canoas, Inferno, Anhanguera, Turvo, and Dourados—flow westward into the estuary of the Río de la Plata. The extreme eastern part of the tableland, however, slopes to the east, and, from a little east of the city of São Paulo, the Paraíba do Sul River turns northeastward and flows parallel to the coast, meandering across a wide floodplain used for the production of rice.

Climate
On the coast the average temperature is about 68 °F (20 °C), and the annual precipitation is about 79 inches (2,007 mm); on the plateau the average temperature varies between about 64 and 68 °F (18 and 20 °C), and in the mountainous areas annual precipitation reaches 59 inches (1,500 mm). The lower third of the state is crossed by the Tropic of Capricorn, and the weather in general is mild and healthful. The coastal zone has a hot climate and heavy rainfall. On the plateau rainfall is ample as well, but diurnal temperatures are lower because of increased elevation.

Flora and fauna
The remaining patches of evergreen forest in the highlands are reminiscent of the wealth of vegetation in Brazil in days gone by. The vegetation is greatly diversified and includes several kinds of hardwoods (such as rosewood), wild fruits, and plants that are used for medicinal and ornamental purposes or for making textiles.

The state’s animal life is largely relegated to highland forests and coastal wetlands. Among the larger animals are jaguars, cougars, tapirs, capybaras (edible rodents related to the guinea pig), howling monkeys, parrots, macaws, and alligators.

The people
Before the arrival of the Portuguese, the two principal indigenous groups were the Tupí-Guaraní, who lived on the coast and on the plateau, and the Tapuia, who lived farther inland. Black African slaves were introduced to the region by the Portuguese during the 17th century. With the devastation of the native peoples and with further European immigration (mostly Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish), from the end of the 19th century onward, the population of the state was reduced to three elements—white, black, and mulatto. Subsequently a small number of Middle Eastern and Japanese immigrants also arrived.

Brazilian-style Portuguese is the language in general use, and English is relatively widely spoken. São Paulo is predominantly Roman Catholic, though other Christian denominations are found.

Under federal law all citizens are entitled to primary education, which is free and compulsory; the cities have the best educational facilities. Institutions of higher learning include the University of São Paulo (with its constituent colleges and affiliated institutes), Mackenzie University, Pontifical Catholic University, and the Polytechnic School of Engineering—all of which are in the city of São Paulo—and Luis de Queiroz Higher School of Agriculture in Piracicaba.

The economy
Manufacturing and services, mostly focused on the city of São Paulo and its environs, account for the vast majority of the state’s production and employ most of its workers. Manufactures include electronic equipment, automobiles, consumer goods, and food products.

Agriculture is largely mechanized; it owes its modernization largely to the Luis de Queiroz school and to the Institute of Agronomy of Campinas. Coffee, formerly the main source of wealth of the state, still accounts for a considerable portion of the total value of its products. Besides coffee, crops include sugarcane, cotton, corn (maize), rice, beans, Indian or Paraguay tea (maté), potatoes, and such fruits as bananas and oranges. Hogs, sheep, horses, and goats are also raised.

The state has an extensive network of highways. Santos is the nation’s busiest port and the largest coffee-shipping port in the world. The ports of São Sebastião, Iguape, Ubatuba, and Cananéia, which are considerably smaller, serve the coastal trade. São Paulo city has an international airport and is the centre of the state’s most important cultural institutions.

History
The area that was to become São Paulo was settled in 1532 by the Portuguese under the explorer Martim Afonso de Souza, who established a flourishing settlement at São Vicente, now a resort town near Santos. When Brazil was divided into captaincies, or hereditary fiefs, the captaincy of São Vicente, comprising the whole of Brazil south of Rio de Janeiro, was granted to Souza (1534). The Vicentinos (inhabitants of São Vicente) had begun to explore the hinterlands, and new villages began to appear on the coastline and on the plateau, which became the main region of inland settlement. In 1681 the captaincy was renamed São Paulo, and the town of São Paulo (founded 1554) was designated the capital.

In the 18th century the Portuguese inhabitants of the captaincy (called Paulistas, or Paulistanos) continued to penetrate the west, north, and south by forming large slave- and gold-hunting expeditions called bandeiras. São Paulo existed on its commerce, sugar growing, and diversified agriculture until the introduction of coffee planting in the 19th century opened a new economic era.

The national independence of Brazil was proclaimed in São Paulo in 1822, at which time the captaincy became a province of the new Brazilian empire. The region of São Paulo became a state when the republic was formed in 1889. Political importance grew with the economy. The nation’s first three civilian presidents after the downfall of the empire in 1889 were Paulistas. Since the mid-20th century, Paulistas, who first served as mayors of the capital city, as governors, or as local political or industrial leaders, have occupied the presidency, cabinet, and other federal positions with significant regularity.

1565 Battle at Talikota India: Deccan sultanate destroy Vijayanagar's army and the last Hindu kingdom of Southern India

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The Battle of Talikota (26 January 1565) was a watershed battle fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Deccan sultanates. It ended in the defeat of Vijayanagara, resulting in its subsequent weakening.

The battle took place at Talikota, today a town in northern Karnataka, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) to the southeast from the city of Bijapur. The Vijayanagara Empire was one of the largest Indian Empires originating from Southern India before the Maratha Empire.

1840 American naval expedition under Charles Wilkes is first to identify Antarctica as a new continent

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The United States Exploring Expedition of 1838-42 is a milestone in American science. Often referred to as the Wilkes Expedition, this expedition brought back to the United States a wealth of geological, botanical, zoological, anthropological and other materials which created a foundation upon which much of American science was formed. At least three of the scientists involved with the expedition gained international acclaim from their efforts.

The expedition was authorized by Congress in response to popular demand. Investigations were carried on in widely separated areas of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans including Brazil, Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, the west coast of North America, the Philippines and the East Indies. The two penetrations into Antarctic waters were in February and March 1839, and January and February of 1840. Even though the Antarctic portion of the expedition was part of a larger plan in the Pacific, major accomplishments were gained. Wilkes sighted land on several occasions as he sailed along the edge of the ice pack south of Australia for some 1500 miles. Thus, Wilkes was the first to provide proof of the existence of an Antarctic continent. Simultaneous to the Wilkes expedition were expeditions from two of the dominant players in Antarctic exploration, Great Britain and France. The French expedition, commanded by Dumont d'Urville, explored the Antarctic Peninsula from January to March 1838, and landed on the Adélie Coast, on the other side of Antarctica, in January 1840. The British Expedition under James Clark Ross explored the Ross Sea in 1840-41 and returned there again the following year. The 1842-43 season was spent on the edge of the Weddell Sea.

1949 1st Israeli election won by David Ben-Gurion's Mapai party

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David Ben-Gurion (Hebrew: דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן‎; pronounced [daˈvɪd ben gurˈjo:n] (About this sound listen), born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.

Ben-Gurion's passion for Zionism, which began early in life, led him to become a major Zionist leader and Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization in 1946. As head of the Jewish Agency from 1935, and later president of the Jewish Agency Executive, he was the de facto leader of the Jewish community in Palestine, and largely led its struggle for an independent Jewish state in Mandatory Palestine. On 14 May 1948, he formally proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel, and was the first to sign the Israeli Declaration of Independence, which he had helped to write. Ben-Gurion led Israel during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and united the various Jewish militias into the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). Subsequently, he became known as "Israel's founding father".

Following the war, Ben-Gurion served as Israel's first Prime Minister and Minister of Defense. As Prime Minister, he helped build the state institutions, presiding over various national projects aimed at the development of the country. He also oversaw the absorption of vast numbers of Jews from all over the world. A centerpiece of his foreign policy was improving relationships with the West Germans. He worked very well with Konrad Adenauer's government in Bonn, and West Germany provided large sums (in the Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany) in compensation for Nazi Germany's confiscation of Jewish property during the Holocaust.

In 1954 he resigned as both Prime Minister and Minister of Defense, although he remained a member of the Knesset. However, he returned as Minister of Defense in 1955 after the Lavon Affair resulted in the resignation of Pinhas Lavon. Later in the year he became Prime Minister again, following the 1955 elections. Under his leadership, Israel responded aggressively to Arab guerrilla attacks, and in 1956, invaded Egypt along with British and French forces after Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal during what became known as the Suez Crisis.

He stepped down from office in 1963, and retired from political life in 1970. He then moved to Sde Boker, a kibbutz in the Negev desert, where he lived until his death. Posthumously, Ben-Gurion was named one of Time magazine's 100 Most Important People of the 20th century.

1971 Military coup in Uganda under Major General Idi Amin

The 1971 Ugandan coup d'état was a military coup d'état executed by the Ugandan military, led by general Idi Amin, against the government of President Milton Obote on January 25, 1971. The seizure of power took place while Obote was abroad attending the Commonwealth Heads of State conference in Singapore.[1] Amin was afraid that Obote might dismiss him.

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The 1971 coup is often cited as an example of "class action by the military", wherein the Ugandan armed forces acted against "an increasingly socialist régime whose equalitarian domestic politics posed more and more of a threat to the military's economic privileges".[2]

2011 Egyptian Revolution of 2011 begins with a series of street demonstrations, rallies, acts of civil disobedience, labor strikes and violent clashes in Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities

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January 2011: Activists in Egypt call for an uprising in their own country, to protest against poverty, unemployment, government corruption and the rule of president Hosni Mubarak, who has been in power for three decades.

January 25:

On a national holiday to commemorate the police forces, Egyptians take to the streets in large numbers, calling it a "day of rage".

Thousands march in downtown Cairo, heading towards the offices of the ruling National Democratic Party, as well as the foreign ministry and the state television. Similar protests are reported in other towns across the country.

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After a few hours of relative calm, police and demonstrators clash; police fire tear gas and use water cannons against demonstrators crying out "Down with Mubarak'' in Cairo's main Tahrir Square.

Protests break out in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria, the Nile Delta cities of Mansura and Tanta and in the southern cities of Aswan and Assiut, witnesses say.

Hours after the countrywide protests begin, the interior ministry issues a statement blaming the Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt's technically banned but largest opposition party, for fomenting the unrest - a claim that the Muslim Brotherhood denies.

Protest organisers heavily relied on social media outlets such as Facebook and Twitter.

The interior minister says three protesters and a police officer have been killed during the anti-government demonstrations.
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Re: This day in History . . . . . 6th May

Post by jthspace » Fri May 04, 2018 1:13 pm

1471 Battle of Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, final battle between the Houses of Lancaster and York: Prince of Wales, Edward of Westminster killed and King Edward IV restored to his throne. Re-restores political stability to England until his death in 1483.

1814 King Ferdinand VII of Spain signs the Decree of the 4th of May, returning Spain to absolutism

1904 Construction begins by the United States on the Panama Canal.

1959 First Grammy Awards: Perry Como & Ella Fitzgerald win

1979 Margaret Thatcher becomes the first woman to be elected Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
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Re: This day in History . . . . . 6 May

Post by jthspace » Sun May 06, 2018 2:32 pm

1994
English Channel tunnel opens

In a ceremony presided over by England’s Queen Elizabeth II and French President Francois Mitterand, a rail tunnel under the English Channel was officially opened, connecting Britain and the European mainland for the first time since the Ice Age.

The channel tunnel, or “Chunnel,” connects Folkstone, England, with Sangatte, France, 31 miles away. The Chunnel cut travel time between England and France to a swift 35 minutes and eventually between London and Paristo two-and-a-half hours.

As the world’s longest undersea tunnel, the Chunnel runs under water for 23 miles, with an average depth of 150 feet below the seabed. Each day, about 30,000 people, 6,000 cars and 3,500 trucks journey through the Chunnel on passenger, shuttle and freight trains.

Millions of tons of earth were moved to build the two rail tunnels–one for northbound and one for southbound traffic–and one service tunnel. Fifteen thousandpeople were employed at the peak of construction. Ten people were killed during construction.

Napoleon’s engineer, Albert Mathieu, planned the first tunnel under the English Channel in 1802, envisioning an underground passage with ventilation chimneys that would stretch above the waves. In 1880, the first real attempt was made by Colonel Beaumont, who bore a tunnel more than a mile long before abandoning the project. Other efforts followed in the 20th century, but none on the scale of the tunnels begun in June 1988.

The Chunnel’s $16 billion cost was roughly twice the original estimate, and completion was a year behind schedule. One year into service, Eurotunnel announced a huge loss, one of the biggest in United Kingdom corporate history at the time. A scheme in which banks agreed to swap billions of pounds worth of loans for shares saved the tunnel from going under and it showed its first net profit in 1999.

Freight traffic was suspended for six months after a fire broke out on a lorry in the tunnel in November 1996. Nobody was seriously hurt in the incident.

In 1996, the American Society of Civil Engineers identified the tunnel as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World.
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